What Is a Francis Turbine And How Does It Work?!

Francis TurbineFrancis Turbine

The Francis turbine is a type of water turbine that was developed by James Francis, hence the name. With about 60% of the global hydropower capacity in the world, Francis turbines are the most widely used type of hydro turbine, mainly because it can work efficiently under a wide range of operating conditions. They operate in a water head from 130 to 2,000 ft. and are primarily used for electrical power production.

What Is a Francis Turbine And How Does It Work?!

The Francis turbines are a reaction turbines, and are generally installed with their axis vertical. First, high pressure water enters the turbine through the spiral casing surrounding the guide vanes.  Then water passes through guide vanes where it is directed to strike the blades on the runner at optimum angles.  As the water flows through the runner it’s pressure and angular momentum reduces.  This reduction imparts reaction on the runner and power is transferred to the turbine shaft.

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