Turbine Engineering – Comparison of Pelton, Francis & Kaplan Turbine!

Turbine EngineeringTurbine Engineering

Pelton, Francis and Kaplan are the most commonly used turbines in the production of hydroelectricity. Each of the turbine is unique in its characteristics and must be used in suitable operating conditions.

In Pelton pure impulse force of the water jet is responsible for the rotation of the impeller. Water stored at high altitude can produce high impose force due to its high velocity. So Pelton turbines are suitable for operation when water energy is available at high head and low flow rate.

Turbine Engineering – Comparison of Pelton, Francis & Kaplan Turbine!

Whereas Kaplan turbines are suitable for the reverse case. In Kaplan reaction force is produced by airfoil action of the runner blades. A high water flow guarantees efficient production of reaction force. So when water is available and high flow rate and low head, Kaplan turbine is the best choice.

Francis turbine comes in between for medium head to medium flow rate applications. Francis turbine is not a pure reaction turbine a portion the force comes from the impulse action also. The specially curved impeller blades of Francis turbine extract energy from the water via reaction and impulse action.

In the video below, a comparison of these three turbines is explained.

Check it out!

Source: http://www.learnengineering.org/